Today, there are still visible relics from the early Pacific Northwest inhabitants. Let’s find out the geology of the Pacific Northwest!
The Pacific Northwest is the Pacific Ocean next to the United States, which is a western region. It runs north-south from British Columbia, Canada to Oregon. Idaho, parts of Montana, Northern California, and Southeast Alaska are also listed as part of the Pacific Northwest on some accounts.
It comprises many of the Pacific Ocean Northwest countries in the woodland of Tei Masu. However, there are large populations such as Seattle and Tacoma, Washington, Vancouver, British Columbia, and Portland, Oregon.
- The Pacific Northwest has tall mountains called the Cascades, which include active volcanoes like Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, and Mount Hood.
- The Cascades were formed a long time ago due to volcanic activity, tectonic plate movements, and erosion.
- The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a place where the ground moves and shakes because of plates under the earth.
- The Pacific Northwest is rich in minerals like gold and silver, and it has been mined for centuries.
- The Columbia River Basalt Group is a series of lava flows that covers much of the region.
- The Missoula Floods were a big flood a long time ago that made a big mess.
- The geology of the Pacific Northwest is important because it affects the land, climate, and culture of the region.
- The hazards posed by volcanoes and earthquakes require ongoing research and monitoring by scientists and geologists.
- Despite these risks, the natural wonders of the Pacific Northwest attract millions of visitors each year.
The Geology of the Pacific Northwest region has a long history and was mainly occupied by various indigenous groups. We believe most of these groups to be engaged in hunting, gathering, and fishing.
One of the first claims to land in the Pacific Ocean Northwest region, Lewis and Clark explored the area in the early 1800s.
The Pacific Northwest is geologically active. It dots the area with several large active volcanoes in the Cascade Range. Such volcanoes include Mount Shasta in Northern California, Mount Hood in Oregon, Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington, and Mount Garibaldi in British Columbia.
The Cascade Volcanoes
The Cascade Range is a major mountain range in North America. It starts from British Columbia in Canada in the north, passes through Washington and Oregon in the United States, and finally reaches California.
The mountain gradually increased from south to north, formed during the Mesozoic Nevada orogenic movement, and composed most of the extruded rocks. The northern section is the highest, mainly composed of Paleozoic granite and older metamorphic rocks. It appears as a cut highland or plateau with granite remnants on the top; both it covers the middle and southern sections with Tertiary lava, especially in the southern section.
The Cascade Volcanoes are major mountain ranges in the Northwestern United States and Canada. It runs from British Columbia in the north to Washington and Oregon in the US, to California in the south. This mountain range has many volcanoes, some of which are still active. A few years ago, our group of tourists went from Seattle to the West of the mountains, ran east at the Washington-Idaho state border, crossed the mountains, and we saw an unfamiliar landscape between the West and East slopes. In the West of the Cascade Mountains, there are green trees and heavy rain. The East is arid, with little rain.
The Cascade Mountains belong to the volcanic belt of the Pacific, including many volcanoes around the Pacific regions of the US and Canada. The volcano at the top of Lassen just erupted from 1914 to 1921. St Helens volcano erupted more frequently and more recently, in the 1980s and recent 1996.
In this section, we would like to share with you a characteristic of the two mountain ranges East and West of this mountain range. Wind monkeys blow from the Pacific Ocean into the Cascade Mountains, the West is heavily raining, so the trees are green. The trees in Seattle are so green that they nicknamed it the city of jade because the trees are so green as jade. In contrast, the Eastern slopes do not rain, the water vapor in the clouds has already rained down to the western slopes. So, the Eastern air is dry, bitter cannot grow, the land is like desert land.
Please share with you some pictures of trees in the mountains East and West of the Cascade. Do you know whether Truong Son Dong and the West in their hometown are like that?
The Cascade Mountains are a mountain range in western North America that extends from the southern Canadian province of British Columbia through Washington and Oregon and then to Northern California.
It includes non-volcanic mountains such as the rugged spire-shaped mountains of the North Cascades and the well-known volcanoes collectively known as the Upper Cascades (High Cascades).
The second name is sometimes also used by residents of Washington state to refer to the part of the Cascade Mountains in this state, instead of the name North Cascades, which is more commonly used in America as in the term North Cascades National Park.
The Cascade Volcanoes are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a ring of volcanoes and related mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All known volcanic eruptions in history in the Continental United States are from the volcanoes of the Cascade Mountains. The two most recent volcanic eruptions were at Mount Lassen between 1914 and 1921 and the main volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens, 1980. Small eruptions of Mount St. Helens happened as well, most recently in 2006.
At the southern end, the range is about 50 to 80 kilometers (30 to 50 miles), between 1,370 and 1,520 meters (4,500 and 5,000 ft) wide, and about 130 kilometers (80 miles) wide on the side. North Washington.
Here the mountain range is only about 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide. The highest volcano of this mountain range is collectively called the Upper Cascade and surpasses the surrounding area. Usually, they are twice as high as the neighboring mountains. They usually have a visible altitude (altitude from the adjacent ledge) of 1.6 km (1 mile) or more. The highest peaks like Mount Rainier at 4,392 meters (14,411 ft) cover the surrounding area between 80 and 160 km (50 to 100 miles).
The northern part of the mountain range (north of Mount Rainier) is named North Cascades. It is very rugged with many low and steep peaks and is covered with ice. The valleys are low, and the main passes are only about 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) high. The southern part of Cascade Canada also considered being part of the North Cascades, is geologically similar.
Since the mountains are near the Pacific Ocean, rainfall is considerable. In particular, the western slopes receive up to 3,800 mm (150 inches) of annual precipitation in some areas. Mount Baker had a record-breaking season in the world in 1999, and heavy snow fell to a height of 600 meters (2,000 ft).
In some places, snow accumulates above 5.5 meters (200 inches), such as Lake Helen (near Mount Lassen) is one place with the most snow. In the world. Much of the Upper Cascade is covered in snow and frozen all year round. The western slopes are full of Douglas fir, western fir, and red fern, while the drier slopes to the east are predominantly Ponderosa pine. The western deciduous pine is higher up. Annual precipitation on the eastern foothills is reduced by up to 200 mm (9 inches) compared to the west. It is because of the rain shielding effect of the mountain.
Outside the foothills is an arid plateau formed about 16 million years ago from a combined series of basalt mineral layers abundant in this area. The spread of molten volcanic rock created an area of 520,000 km² (200,000 square miles) east of Washington, Oregon, and parts of northern California and Idaho known as the Columbia River Plateau.
The Columbia River Gorge is the only major break in the part of the Cascade Mountains in the United States. When the Cascades emerged 7 million years ago during the Pliocene, the Columbia took its water from the lower Columbia River Plateau. As the mountain range advanced, the Columbia could continue creating the main gorges and passes seen today.
Image Source: https://www.usgs.gov/observatories/cascades-volcano-observatory/volcano-hazards-cascade-range
Volcanism outside the Cascades
The eruption of the Pelée also had a political consequence as it convinced the American Senate to give up the plan to open a canal in Nicaragua to connect the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific to avoid the circumnavigation of the American continent by warships and merchant ships of that country. The idea of opening a waterway in Nicaragua came to the Americans after a few years earlier the French plan for a similar construction in Panamanian territory had failed.
The French, returning from their engineering triumph for cutting the Suez Canal, had tried to open a navigable passage in that area but the work encountered considerable obstacles because of the spread among the workers of epidemics of malaria and yellow fever to the point of causing the bankruptcy of the company entrusted with the work. The presence of an unhealthy area prompted the Americans to plan an opening between the two oceans further north but the eruption of Pelee, a volcano near Nicaragua, a land itself rich in inactive volcanoes, eventually persuaded the American senators to vote in favor of the primitive French project. It inaugurated the Panama Canal in 1914.
Finally, it is necessary to mention the most recent catastrophic eruption: that of Mount St. Helens in Virginia (USA) which occurred on May 18, 1980. It was the most carefully studied and controlled eruption since the preliminary stages it took the technicians who were on the spot by surprise. Mount St. Helens is one of the fifteen major volcanoes in the Cascade Range that extends north from California to British Columbia: it is part of the so-called fire belt, the volcanic chains that embed the Pacific. Those mountains are pushed upward at the subduction zones where the tectonic plates of the Pacific dip beneath the continental plates that surround the ocean to the west, north, and east. Subduction causes large earthquakes and provides the magma and pressure that feed the power of the fire belt volcanoes.
The mushroom of dust and ash that emerged from the crater darkened the sky over the western Pacific and expanded to reach New York 3,500 kilometers away three days later. The damage to agriculture, artifacts (bridges, houses, and entire villages razed to the ground), and natural assets within a radius of many kilometers were enormous and quantified in over 1,500 billion dollars. The dead were a hundred, a number that may seem small but which for modern times must be considered high because a substantial group of technicians from the United States Geological Survey who evacuated residents from the vicinity of the volcano heeled the foreboding phases.
The eruptive phenomena consist of a degassing process such as the release of the gases from the Magna in the outbreak. This phenomenon can occur with a calm and constant trend over time or suddenly and violently. For the first case, the light magma because it is hot and rich in gas rises along the duct unobstructed by solid materials and comes out undisturbed with a regular flow. The phenomenon is like what happens in a bottle of sparkling wine with the cork removed: shaking the open bottle. The wine comes out quietly, full of carbon dioxide bubbles.
The other case occurs when the gases struggle to leave the magma mass. They are released only when their internal pressure exceeds the external pressure exerted by the magma column above or worse, by a solid plug that obstructs the duct. In these cases, the volcanoes behave like a closed bottle of sparkling wine that is shaken or heated. It is an experiment that should not be attempted because the bottle could turn into an actual bomb: in the best case the pressure of the gases dissolved in the wind would blow the cork, but in the worst case the bottle could explode.
The observations lead us to think of the existence of two different initial magmas, one fluid because it is rich in silica and gas and the other vicious. Except that the study of the earth’s interior has revealed solid bodies. Therefore, there would be no primordial molten envelope to which to assign the function of the inexhaustible magma reservoir, also because such a condition would be in contradiction with life rather short of the volcanoes. From these, magmas must originate from the local melting of previously solid rocks.
The analysis of the rocks that make up the outermost part of the planet has shown that there are two basic types of earth’s crust: oceanic and continental. The first is entirely covered by the waters of the oceans of which it forms the floor; the second corresponds to the continents and their narrow continuation below sea level, which takes the name of the continental shelf. The two types of crust differ because of the age and nature of the rocks that appear there: the oceanic one is mainly made up of heavy basaltic rocks of a geologically recent age while the continental one is composed of light granite rocks, often very ancient. From the merger of the former, it would derive magmas and the latter would give rise to acid magmas.
Once the genesis of magmas has been traced back to a fusion mechanism of pre-existing solid materials, it is questionable what are the causes that make this fusion workable. Undoubtedly an important role could be played by fluids. When contact with solid rocks, would lower their melting point, but the role of gases and vapors cannot be decisive if we do not associate it with adequate temperatures and pressures. Actually. These last two physical factors govern the fusion of solid bodies by acting separately or together. To produce the fusion, the temperature must increase and the pressure decrease.
An increase in temperature can be obtained by bringing relatively superficial masses to depth: in this case, however, besides the temperature, the pressure exerted by the overlying rocks would also increase on those materials, which would act in the sense of hindering the melting. The rise of incandescent material from the depths of the planet could also cause a temperature rise. A third way to get the partial melting of the rocks is that connected to the decrease of the pressure in deep areas of the lithosphere where the temperature, already very high, would change the physical state of the rocks if the pressure were that which exists on the surface.
Recent volcanic activity
In 2015, Geologists predicted an imminent super-earthquake in the Pacific Northwest, threatening the lives of 13,000 people. Fox news agency reported that there will be a terrible earthquake in history in the Northwest Pacific, which can kill 13,000 people. This super quake will also directly affect 70,000 people.
Fox News warned that the forthcoming earthquake in the Pacific Northwest will be 30 times stronger than those caused by the San Andreas fault. This impending earthquake is part of the Cascadia fault.
The standard is, on average, 13,000 people will have the image. This terrible earthquake could threaten the lives of 13,000 people. According to research by geologists, the earthquakes caused by the Cascadia fault occur every 240 years. And the last earthquake was 300 years ago, around the 1700s. That earthquake created tsunamis as high as 600 feet (nearly 200 meters) in Japan.
Physics professor Michio Kaku at New York City University said that the super earthquake will not happen in California, it will happen at the Cascadia fault (stretching from San Francisco to Seattle). The super quake would have a magnitude of 9.2.
Physics professor Michio Kaku revealed, before the earthquake hits, we will see the first signs from the animals. “The animals will behave strangely, that’s the sign. And after a minute or two, the real earthquake happens,” he said. They predict that the earthquake will have a magnitude of 9.2 and last about 4 minutes. About 15 minutes later, the tsunami will engulf cities near the coast.
The Northwest Pacific region experienced extensive structural deformation during the Cenozoic. It is an essential area for studying the dynamic process of plate interaction. The Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea plate subducted under the Okhotsk and Eurasian plates, forming marginal seas, expansion zones, and widely distributed island arcs. Because of the limitations of data and methods, there is still a lack of consensus on the existing tomographic imaging results in this area. Understanding the geodynamic characteristics of the Northwest Pacific is a challenging subject.
Associate researcher Lu Yan, researcher Li Juan, Professor Liu Lijun, and researcher Zhao Lianfeng of the Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, used the developed seismic wave velocity and anisotropy tomography method to get the top of the mantle in the Northwest Pacific. The high-precision Pn wave velocity and anisotropy images have got new imaging findings that differ significantly from those of the predecessors, providing new earthquakes for studying plate subduction, mantle convection processes, and the structure of volcanoes and back-arc basins.
The study revealed the low-velocity anomaly below the Japan Sea Basin, the spatial extent that corresponds to the distribution of oceanic crust. The results show that the P- wave velocity at the top of the mantle below the young oceanic crust at 30-15 Ma is 4%-5% lower than normal, which provides a new seismological basis for studying seismic velocity changes on both sides of the mid-ocean ridge. In previous imaging studies, the relatively low imaging resolution of other methods caused low-speed images west of Japan.
The Pn anisotropy provides a new perspective for studying the dynamic evolution of this area. The Pn fast wave direction in the Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea subduction zone is parallel to the collision boundary. This anisotropy pattern originates from the dominant B -type olivine under the active island-arc volcano.
In the western and northwestern parts of the Japanese archipelago, the fast direction of Pn anisotropy is perpendicular to the nearest groove. The vertical fast wave direction of this groove shows the preferred orientation of the olivine lattice. In Japan, under the basin EW of Pn, a fast direction shown by the olivine lattice orientation basin mantle, convection expands at the leading dive rearranged stop.
This study provides more details on the structure and deformation of the upper mantle in the Northwest Pacific. It also shows the unique advantages of the developed wave velocity and anisotropic imaging methods.
The Pacific Northwest has diverse terrain, including the Coast Ranges, Cascade Ranges, Olympic Mountains, Columbia Mountains, and the Rocky Mountains. The highest peak here is Mount Rainier in the Washington Cascade at an altitude of 14,410 feet (4,392 m).
Immediately inland of the Cascade Range is a wide plateau, narrower and higher toward the north. This region of the United States is semi-arid or dry out. Columbia Plateau is in Canada, British Columbia. They also refer to the inland plateau and Fraser plateau.
The Columbia Plateau is a remnant of the massive ice-age floods that have become sloping canyons and plateaus. The Columbia River digs deep valleys around the plateau, through the Cascade Range, and into the Pacific Ocean. Like the Mississippi River, it has many tributaries, more than anywhere else in the 48 mainland states.
Because of the abundance of rainfall in many areas, the Pacific Northwest has abundant and extensive forests, and at one point was the oldest tree in the world. People classify forests near the coast as temperate rainforests and are, in local terms, “cold jungles.”
Vancouver, Portland, and Seattle all started as shipping ports for local timber, minerals, and crops. But they take advantage of their location on the Pacific edge to be a technological center like Silicon Forest. It developed as a land.
There are four national parks in the United States in this area: Crater Lake, Oregon, Olympic National Park, Washington, Mount Rainier, and the North Cascades. Other areas of outstanding landscape include the Oregon Coast, the Columbia River Gorge, the Columbia River, Mount St. Helens, and the Hell’s Gorge on the Snake River between Oregon and Idaho.
On the Canadian side, there is the Pacific Rim on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Revelstoke, and Gracia (glaciers) in the Selkirk Mountains and Rogers Pass, and the Kutney and Yoho National Park on the British Columbia side of the Rocky Mountains. Although not as protected as national parks and a handful of state parks, there are five of the world’s largest mid-latitude icefields in the southern and central coastal mountains of British Columbia.
The North Cascades
North Cascades National Park is one of the most rugged national parks in Washington state, if not the entire country. Not only are dramatic trails that glaciers emphasize making it difficult to live on, but over 90% of its 500,000 acres are designated the Stephen Mather Wildlands and remain completely untouched with less development. However, do not get discouraged when exploring this dense natural environment. Combined with Lake Ross and Lake Chelan national recreation areas, the North Cascades National Park Complex features some of the best hiking trails in Washington state, and magnificent views will last a lifetime.
The Cascade Pass is one of the most popular hiking trails in North Cascades National Park. Before North Cascades became a designated national park, Native Americans and fur dealers passed the Cascade Pass. Back then, on the 3.7-mile trail, with well-designed switches, the views at the top remained the same.
There is no lack of dramatic views from the Cascade Pass. For a day of adventure or an overnight experience, hikers can continue past the Cascade Pass and onto the Sahale Arm Trail to the Sahale Glacier or stay on the same trail to hike into the Basin Horseshoe or Stehekin mountain community over 20 miles away.
The narrow coastal mountain range extends northward from near Los Angeles in Southern California.
California, Oregon, and Washington state coasts, as far as the Olympic Mountains. But in terms of the geological structure, it extends further north, passing through Vancouver Island, the Alexandria Islands, the St. Elias Mountains, and to Kodiak Island.
The east of the mountains is a subsidence zone (port roads, valleys, bays). And the mountains are separated by many horizontal valleys, and there are many gorges. Rich in precipitation and dense forests, it is famous for the redwoods in northern California, Douglas firs, and hemlocks from Oregon to Alaska.
Northwestern Pacific mountain system part (Pacific mountain system) includes the United States and a series of mountain ranges parallel to the Pacific coast. From central and western Washington State in the north to southern California in the south, the entire mountain range is approximately 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) in length.
The Insular mountains on the well-developed plain look like isolated islands above the sea. Although the term is more commonly used, it only refers to hills that are usually composed of plutonic rocks such as granite and gneiss under tropical and subtropical conditions. They are characterized by steep curved slopes made of bare rocks.
Island mountains often appear as ridges, ridges, or isolated hills. Its formation results from erosion. The bare rock dome is called a dome-shaped island mountain, with concentric crusts (thickness ranging from a few centimeters to 6 meters) that are peeled off like onion heads. There are often foot erosion surfaces at the base of island mountains. In the late stage of the island mountain, it can develop into a remnant mound. It forms isolated hills under non-tropical conditions, called monadnocks.
The Mishima Mountain in Vietnam is a rocky mountain range that stretches for about 50 kilometers. It is in the middle reaches of the Red River. It starts from Sanyang County in Xuan Quang Province in the northwest and ends at Jinying and Duo Phuoc counties in Vinh Phuc Province in the southeast. There are three towering mountains in between. The peaks of Tianshi Mountain, Shipan Mountain, and Fuyi Mountain are often called Sandao Mountain because the mountainside is often clouded and looks like three islands on the sea of clouds.
The Pacific Northwest has a moist and cool climate, leading to the growth of vast forests featuring some world’s largest trees. We consider coastal forests in this area temperate rainforests. However, the more inland, the harder the winters. The warmer the summers, and the drier the climate.
The Pacific Northwest economy varies, but some world’s largest and most successful technology companies, such as Microsoft, Intel, Expedia, and Amazon.com.
Aerospace is also an essential industry in the Pacific Northwest, as they found Boeing in Seattle and are now part of its operations in the Seattle area. Air Canada has a large hub at Vancouver International Airport.
Pacific Ocean Coast Northwest, Washington University, Oregon University, British Columbia large universities such as the University are regarded as the United States and the education center of both of Canada’s. The major ethnic groups in the Pacific Northwest are Caucasians, Mexicans, and Chinese.
Recreational Gold Panning
The climate of the Pacific Northwest is also diverse. The oceanic climate (west coast oceanic climate) is found in many coastal areas between the ocean and alpine areas. The high mountains have an alpine climate. The eastern part of the alpine, the so-called rainy shade, has a semi-arid and dry climate. The Harney Basin, Oregon, is an example of a dry climate. The climate is semi-cold near Revelstoke. Further north, it has a subarctic climate. It has a Mediterranean climate in Victoria and elsewhere.
For mining projects on the Pacific Northwest, the El Arco copper project at the southern tip of Baja California and the El Boleo multi-metal project at the northern part of Baja California Sur are compared. The scale of the target mine is large, and development is relatively progressing. Also, there are gold and silver projects on the south side of La Paz, the capital of Baja California and the southern part of Baja California Sur, and Canadian companies are proceeding with exploration and development.
The El Arco Copper Project is in the central part of the Baja California Peninsula, on the border with Baja California Sur at the southern tip of Baja California. The nearby town is Guerrero Negro (Pacific side of Baja California Sur), and the nearby town in Baja California is Santa Rosalía. It includes the entire area of this project in the “Valle de Los Curios”, a nature conservation area for fauna and flora.
Around the El Arco block, a US company operated a Callalli copper mine on a small scale in the 1930s and 1940s. In 1968, Grupo Mexico’s predecessor, ASARCO Mexicana, acquired a stake in the block. The company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Grupo Mexico in 1999 after several transitions, and in 2000 the block became Grupo Mexico’s Mexican mining industry. It will be under the jurisdiction of MM (Minera Mexico), which is a division. Since the 1970s, a boring exploration with a total length of about 90,000m has been carried out, a leaching test for oxide ore was carried out from 1975 to 1976, and an FS including a mineral processing test using a pilot plant was carried out from 1995 to 1997.
There are many neatly arranged, bright red mineral small pieces in the crystal of sunstone. When light is irradiated, the minor pieces reflect thousands of bright spots of golden light, like the sun’s rays. So, it is called sunstone. It has two well-known production areas: Southern Norway and Oregon, the United States.
The uniqueness of the sunstone produced in Oregon is that the crystals are large, the colors are rich, and they can have many tones under the light. At the same time, the clarity can be excellent. Suitable for cutting faceted gems.
In 1987, the Oregon State Legislature passed a joint resolution to designate sunstone as the state gem.
The sunstone is produced in different places, and its solar effects are also different. The known origins are Tanzania, Australia, Canada, Norway, India, Russia, the United States, China, etc. Sunstone is mainly produced in pegmatite and some felsic dykes.
The sunstone produced in Russia is a sunstone composed of colorless, transparent, thick plate-shaped feldspar crystals.
Among them, the sunstone produced in Oregon, the United States, is the most popular with everyone except Norway. The reserves of sunstone in the Ponderosa Mine in Oregon are intense. For every cubic yard of dust removed, 1.5 kilograms of sunstone can be harvested-without a doubt. It is one of the most famous gem mining areas in the world. The sunstone produced in the United States has a yellow or orange selenium golden light, and its quality is said to be better than those produced in Norway and Russia.
Sunstone is a type of feldspar rock, usually orange, red, or brown tones. Some other colors can be relatively rare, such as green, or sometimes appear multiple colors on the same piece. Sunstone has the English name Sunstone. In Greece it is called helio lite, this is a combination of two words: helio and lithos, meaning sunshine and stone, perhaps because of its yellow-orange color.
Oregon Sunstone formed in ancient basalt lava flows. When the basalt evaporated, it released the crystals. Gemstones come in a beautiful variety of natural colors, optical effects, and types. It was first sold as “Plush Diamonds” after the region where it was found (Plush, Oregon).
In 1987, they designated the Oregon Sunstone the official stone of the state of Oregon. We can also list Oregon Sunstone as Andesine, or Red Labradorite, or even Feldspar. It is in the group of a mineral called feldspar. Some Oregon Sunstones contain slightly more sodium and less calcium.
The hardness of the Oregon Sunstones ranges from 6.0 to 6.5 on the Mohs scale. Because of its hardness, it is suitable for a wide variety of types of jewelry. Oregon Sunstone is ideal for jewelry such as pendants, earrings, brooches, and other pieces that will not stand up to heavy wear and tear. Dust alone has a hardness of 7 to 7.5, which can scratch the material. Steel can scratch gemstones with a hardness of only 6.
The hardness of gemstones signifies the ability to resist scratches. Hardness depends on the bonds that hold atoms together in a crystal structure. In 1812 Friedrich Mohs established a benchmark scale of ten rankings of common minerals in order of increasing hardness. Diamond being 10 years of hardness and Talc at 1%, which means even a fingernail will scratch it.
Thunderegg Collection In Oregon
Does the thunder guild lay eggs? Haven’t you heard of this? The first thunder god is a male person who should not be able to lay eggs, and the second if there are a lot of eggs, there will not be a bunch of little thunder gods.
Thunderegg is in all states in the western United States. It is the state stone of Oregon, the United States. Oregon produces many stones, and its sunstone is quite famous. Thunderegg ore diameter ranges from one centimeter to two meters or more. They say the most beautiful one to be from Jefferson County, central Oregon, and in the Pony Mountains. And our Thunder God egg bought from a Mexican manufacturer is smaller than a pigeon egg, and we often put the big Thunderball egg at home or in the office of a shop.
What is the Cascadia Subduction Zone and why is it important?
The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a fault that stretches 680 miles from Vancouver Island to northern California. It is the location where the Juan de Fuca Plate slowly sinks into the North American Plate, resulting in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. It is notable because it poses a considerable risk to the region, with the potential to trigger earthquakes and tsunamis affecting millions of people.
What caused the massive floods that shaped the landscape of the Pacific Northwest?
The Missoula Floods and other huge floods that changed the Pacific Northwest terrain were produced by the rapid release of glacier lakes during the last ice age. Water poured over the area when ice dams broke, carving up canyons and changing the ground.
What kind of minerals are found in the Pacific Northwest?
The Pacific Northwest is rich in minerals such as copper, gold, silver, and zinc. These minerals have been mined for millennia and remain key economic drivers in the region.
What is the history of volcanic activity in the Pacific Northwest?
Volcanic activity has a lengthy history in the Pacific Northwest, stretching back millions of years. The most recent volcanic eruptions in the region were Mount St. Helens’ 1980 explosion and Mount Rainier’s ongoing activity.
How has the geology of the Pacific Northwest influenced the region’s culture and economy?
The geology of the Pacific Northwest has had a considerable impact on the culture and economy of the region. It has had an impact on everything from the region’s agriculture, which benefits from rich soils and a temperate temperature, to its tourism economy, which attracts millions of people each year to view the region’s natural treasures. Mineral resources have also played a significant role in the region’s economic development.
What are the most important geological features of the Pacific Northwest?
The Cascades Mountain Range, the Columbia River Gorge, the Juan de Fuca Plateau, and the Olympic Peninsula are the most significant geological features in the Pacific Northwest. These characteristics have influenced the region’s terrain, climate, and culture
How do scientists study the geology of the Pacific Northwest?
Scientists use a range of techniques to explore the geology of the Pacific Northwest, including seismic imaging, gravity surveys, and geochemical analyses. They also use a network of sensors and observatories to monitor the region’s volcanoes and earthquakes.
What are some of the hazards posed by the geology of the Pacific Northwest?
The geology of the Pacific Northwest presents a number of risks, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and tsunamis. These dangers have the potential to have serious consequences for the region’s infrastructure, economy, and communities.
How has the geology of the Pacific Northwest changed over time?
Because to tectonic plate movements, volcanic activity, and erosion, the geology of the Pacific Northwest has changed dramatically over time. Glaciers, floods, and landslides changed the environment, resulting in the diverse and dynamic geography we witness today.